Information Technology Software Testing

Introduction to software testing

Hello folks

In today’s blog post , I am going to tell you about software testing basics.

 What is software testing?

Primary goal of software testing is to find out defects in the context of requirements.

Software testing is a broad spectrum planned activity conducted by Quality Analysis team which includes quality assurance and quality control.

Quality assurance activities seek to prevent buggy code and Quality Control implements actual testing to find out defect.

Software testing is fundamentally using software as end user and finding deviations from what is expected , keeping in mind human perspective of software applications. Finding a bug in an application needs  good analytical abilities, observation, patience and of course a lot of questioning attitude. 😊

What is Defect ?

Defect is error state of software application that results in deviation from expected behaviour.

For example :

A login page has two fields Email and password and login button.


If user is able to login by entering wrong password, then this is a defect .

Objectives of software testing :

1.Uncover defects in software product

2.Verify conformance of product features to functional and non functional requirements

3.Undestand risks involved and implement steps to minimize risks

Different test techniques are used to derive feasible number of tests to be conducted as number of possible input and output combinations can be enormous for even simple piece of code

Software Testing Life Cycle

Software testing life cycle has phases phases :

Requirement Analysis − In this phase requirements to de developed are examined in detail.

Discussions and clarifications are conducted with respective stakeholders to analyse and document requirements.

Output of this phase can be requirement clarification document.

Test Planning – In this phase, Test Team plans approach of testing , scope of test effort , cost and resource estimates.

Scope of testing identifies implicit and explicit test items with respect to requirement clarification document.

Out of scope test items are also mentioned with respect to requirement being developed. Approach of testing identifies different test techniques to be used.

Test Case Designing – In this phase test scenarios and test cases are derived based on requirement. Test data is also identified for test cases.

Test cases are mapped to use cases or user stories in Requirement Traceblity Matrix to ensure optimum test coverage.

Output of this phase is Test case document

Test Environment Setup – This phase involves setting up a test environment as per hardware and software configurations required to test.

For Ex : Setting up local QA server or preproduction instance depending on phase of testing

Test Execution − During this phase, actual testing is carried out as per test cases prepared.

Test results are documented.

Defects are reported using Defect Tracking Tools.

Any fixed defects are also retested.

Test Closure – A consolidated test report is prepared depending on scope of testing effort.

Different test metrics are prepared to evaluate test effort conducted.

For Ex : defect density, number of test cases executed, number of test cases passed.

Hope today’s post helped you understand basics of software testing.

Keep watching  this space for more as we dive deep in an ocean of “software testing”.

General Topic

त्याचं घोरणं🎵🎵

त्याचं घोरणं🎵🎵
त्याच्या खर्ज्यातल्या घाsची
आणी काळी पाचच्या घाsची
चालली आहे जुगलबंदी।
माझ्या डोळ्यांच्या पहा-यात मात्र,
झालीये झोप जायबंदी ।।1।।
शरण आले देवा तुला, देते मी खात्री,
नवस फेडीन तुझा, जागून सात रात्री।
अशक्य आहे थांबणं, आता त्याचं घोरणं,
माझ्यासाठी कर देवा, त्याचंच अंगाई गाणं,
त्याचंच अंगाई गाणं ।।2 ।।
– स्वाती कुलकर्णी.


Curious Kids Or Parents At Test 😲- Part 4 (How Baby Goes In?)

My kiddo was around three and half year old. My sister in law (SIL)’s was pregnant and her delivery was due in December sometime. So she had come to Mumbai for her delivery. It was my Kiddo’s first encounter with the pregnancy. He saw all preparations in full swing for arrival of new guest- clothes, craddle, special food items. He saw the big baby bump his Bua was sporting. One evening his Bua called him and put his small hands on her belly. He could feel tiny movements from within. He was all excited. He was telling one and all about baby in Bua’s belly.

In couple of hours the excitement waned and curiosity peeped in. At sleeping time he came closer to me and called me in a confidential tone, “Mammaaaa….” By now I had learnt to distinguish this special tone. Immediately my mind went into “attention” mode. I tried to keep my tone casual and said, “yes beta??”

Kiddo: Mammaaaa how did the baby go into Bua’s belly??

I was dumbstruck. Now how to answer him?? I had dreaded this question since arrival of my SIL and that dreaded moment had now arrived. Still I had not reached the solution. I thought for a while and finally said-
Me: Beta the baby did not go in but it was formed there.

I could see that he was not really convinced by my answer but he didn’t ask anything further. I also maintained the silence.

Since he had not received satisfactory answer he started thinking on his own. Next night when we were alone he asked me, “Mammaaaa, did Bua swallow the baby??” (He seemed disgusted with his own idea)

Me (shocked): Nooo!!!

He seemed relieved. At least Bua had not swallowed the baby.

Kiddo: Then did the baby enter inside through Bua’s nose??

Me (helpless): Nooo Beta.

Kiddo: Then the baby must have entered through Bua’s belly button for sure..

Me (exasperated): No, no, no Beta. The baby was formed inside mother’s womb.

He was exploring all holes in the body and trying to figure out whether the baby had entered Bua’s belly through that route.

His eyes were still telling me that he was not convinced with the answer. For the first time his Mamma had failed him!

Next day when I got back from office my kiddo came to me bursting with excitement. I finally found out how baby got inside. Now it was my turn to ask him.

Me: how??

Kiddo: Dadi told me that when all of us were sleeping the God placed the baby inside Bua by magic. She had prayed for the baby.

Me: Is it??

Hmm.. since his Mamma had failed to answer his query he had naturally turned to his next best resource Dadi for answers.

I was not happy the way this quest had ended. But all the same I felt relieved that now I need not answer this question for some time.

Finally after few months I found a book named “Where do babies come from?” The book is specially meant for quenching thirst of small ones. Nice illustrations, to the point information and absolutely decent language. It explains general reproduction cycle first for plants, then for birds, then for cats and finally for humans. Must have book! I showed the book to my kiddo. 

In nutshell I told him Daddy has a sperm and Mamma has an egg (no, this is not like chicken egg we eat!! Mamma cannot take out her egg. It’s there in her ovaries. I had to show my kiddo the position of ovaries..phew..) The egg joins the sperm to make a tiny baby inside Mamma’s womb. Slowly tiny legs grow, tiny hands grow, head and eyes grow. Simultaneously other organs like heart, lungs are formed. It takes around 9 months for a baby to grow. When baby grows fully the Doctor takes out the baby by doing small operation (I didn’t dare mention normal delivery yet). 

Though Kiddo’s quest had ended with Dadi’s simple explanation Mamma’s urge to give correct information had not ended. Mamma’s quest ended only when she gave correct explanation to the kiddo.

As a mother I always believed that we should try to give factually correct answers to our kids. We need not elaborate on not-so-required details. But try to stick to the facts. At least do not give incorrect explanations. At times I prefer to tell my kid that Mamma does not know the answer. But she will find it and come back. And yes majority of the times it works. It works because Mamma comes back with the answers!!

Friends how did you like today’s blog?? Let’s meet again and explore my kiddo’s first rendezvous with the original “Thalaiva” Rajanikant.

General Topic


आजीच्या अनुपस्थितीत रेखाआत्या होती सर्वांची मम्मी;

भावंडांमधे जास्त लाडकी आहे तिची लहान बहीण निम्मी,

दिवसंरात्र कष्ट केले तिने जुळवायांस आपल्या भावंडांची लग्न;

राहात नाही तिला आठवण खाण्यापिण्याची एकदाका ती झाली कामात मग्न,

तिच्या पोटी जन्मले शुभांगीताई आणि अमित सारखे दोन मोती;

नेहमीच जपल्या तिने सासरच्या आणि माहेरच्या सर्वच नातीगोती,

सदैव तयार असते ती खायला असो कुठलाही लाडू;

आश्चर्य वाटतं कसेकाय ओळखीचे असतात तीच्या सगळ्यांचेच जावई आणि साडू,

कामास एका पायावर तयार असते ती असो लग्न किंवा मुंज;

वर्षानुवर्ष देत आहे ती तिच्या फ्रोझन शोल्डरशी झुंज,

कार्यक्रम असला की तिची धडक असते कार्यालयात थेट;

कधीच सोडत नाही ती बोलायचा चान्स जेंव्हा होते नातेवाईकांची गाठभेट, 

खडानखडा पाठ आहेत तिचे श्रीसुक्ताची ओळन् ओळ;

सर्वत्र तिची ओळख आहे असो पुण्यातले कुठलेही गल्लीबोळ,

तिला गप्पा मारायला विषय नाही लागत कधीच कुठलाही खास;

तिच्याशी फोनवर बोलताना कळत नाही कसे संपतात तासन तास,

लपवून ठेवते आतल्या डब्यात अमितसाठी ती स्पेशल खाऊ;

बाहेरून कडक दिसत असली तरीही स्वभावाने आहे ती खूपच मऊ,

मला हक्काने मागते ती कधीही हवी असेल जर तिला लिफ्ट;

लाखमोलाचं असतं तीच्या आशिर्वादांचं प्रेमळ गिफ्ट, 

गायब होतात तीचे दुखण्यामुळे आलेले डोळ्यातील आसु;

एकदाका तिने पाहिले चिरागच्या चेहर्यावरचे इऊलेसे हसु,

प्रत्येक नववधूला सांगते ती ‘लग्नानंतर सांभाळ गं बाई तुझी फिगर;

खात्री आहे मला संतुलित आहाराने कंट्रोलमधे ठेवेल ती आपली श्युगर!!!


Curious kids or parents at test 😲 -Part 3

For reading part 2 click on below link

Curious kids or parents at test 😲 -Part 2 (Dadi wouldn’t let me put ink on stickers)

In previous part we read about my Kiddo’s complaint about Dadi that she was not letting him put ink on the stickers and my mother in law’s (MIL) odd questions about place of keeping sanitary napkins. I was still trying to keep my patience and tried to assure my MIL that I don’t leave such things in open in my cupboard. She sat quietly on the edge of the bed. Finally I opened my cupboard and showed her that the packet was nicely kept in embroidered pink bag and the bag was placed safely in upper drawer.She heaved a sigh and started narrating the events of the afternoon. She was in the kitchen preparing tea. Kiddo managed to escape Dadi’s attention and went into the bedroom. I don’t know why but my kiddo had always found Mamma’s cupboard to be a trove of treasure. Not only then but even now also he doesn’t miss opportunity to peep into Mamma’s cupboard.So he managed to open my cupboard. Lower shelves were packed with clothes. He climbed on the second shelf by resting his feet on the lower shelves and caught hold of embroidered pink purse. He found some napkins exactly similar to those he had seen in the advertisement. By Jove! They were not just napkins but they were stickers!! He removed the adhesive papers in hurry and stuck 5-6 stickers on our bed. He was really pleased with his own act. But he was not satisfied with this. He wanted something more.He was trying to find something in Daddy’s study when my MIL realised that all was quiet and she had not heard my kiddo for some time. Silence is always sign of danger when you have small kids in the house. She rushed out of kitchen and saw my kiddo struggling to remove something from his father’s cabinet. It was the ink bottle! My kiddo demanded the ink bottle when he saw Dadi around. She asked him, “But why you need ink bottle??” My kiddo dragged his Dadi to our bedroom excitedly. He pointed at our bed and said excitedly, “Dadi look. I have got stickers and I want to pour ink on these stickers exactly the way they show on TV” My MIL was aghast looking at the sight in my bedroom. The kiddo had spread his stickers aka sanitary napkins across the bed and affixed them to the bedsheet.My MIL was in a fix. She refused to give him ink bottle point blank. Dadi had removed his precious stickers and had thrown them in the dustbin. What else my poor darling could have done other than complaining to his Mamma, “Dadi wouldn’t let me put ink on the stickers”Friends how did you like my blog?? Follow my blog to know about what happens when my Kiddo met his pregnant Bua!!

General Topic


ते आहेत दिगंबर; घरातले जनाकाका आणि ॲाफिसातले Digs;

आजी नक्कीच खायला देत असणार त्यांना काजू बदाम आणि Figs,

सर्वच कामं ते करतात असो धुणंभांडी किंवा दळण;

फक्त पाॅझीटिव ॲटीट्यूड दिसतो त्यांचा असो जीवनातील कुठलेही वळण,

शैलाकाकू जनाकाका आहेतच जणू लक्ष्मी नारायण;

चुकवत नाहीत कधीच ते अभ्यंकरांचं पारायण,

दादा आणि ते म्हणजे होती जोडी राम-लक्ष्मण;

सदैव पाठीशी असतात ते असो कधीही पैशांची चणचण,

कधीच फोर्स करत नाहीत कुणावरही ते आपलं मत;

दिसतं मला त्यांच्यात बोंटडकर कुटुंबातील मायेचं छत,

आम्हा सर्वांवर सदैव असो त्यांच्या प्रेमाची सावली;

कठीण प्रसंगात ते असतात माझे खरे वीठू माऊली,

नेहमीच असते माझ्यावर त्यांच्या आशीर्वादाची छाया;

नक्की सांगतो..कधीच कमी पडू देणार नाहीत ते मला माझ्या वडिलांची माया!!!

General Topic

माझी प्रिय पूर्वा

आजच्या चार ओळ्या आहेत माझ्या प्रिय पुर्वा साठी;

देवानेच बांधुन ठेवल्या होत्या आमच्या लग्नाच्या गाठी,

विधीलिखित लिहून ठेवलेली ती वेळ आली;

२००९ साली आमची पहिली भेट झाली,

तीच्या येण्याने आयुष्यात आली खूपच छान बहार;

नेहमीच ठेवती ती माझा डायेटयुक्त आहार,

तीचा सल्ला म्हणजे दुख्खावर पेनरीलिफ बाम;

परफेक्शन असतं तिचं कुठलेही असो काम,

प्रत्येक कार्यक्रमात असतो तीचा प्रेमाचा आहेर;

मान ठेवते सर्वांचां सासर असोवा माहेर,

ठेवते ती सदैव भावनांवर संतुलित ताबा;

तीच्या खूपच जवळचे आहेत ओंकार आणि बाबा,

सईचे मार्क छान असतात असो कुठलीही सेमिस्टर;

म्हणुनच आहे पूर्वा माझी परफेक्ट होम मिनिस्टर,

मला म्हणते ‘ reduce your tummy and increase your chest’;

अर्रे एकदा तरी नक्कीच करून बघा तिच्या केकची टेस्ट,

सगळेच म्हणतात पूर्वा आहे बोंटडकरांची नंबर वन सून;

आज सांगतो लवकरचं करू आपलं सेकंड हनीमून!!!

General Topic Parenting

Curious kids or parents at test 😲 -Part 2 (Dadi wouldn’t let me put ink on stickers)

Once I was bathing my toddler. My toddler was enjoying playing in water. Suddenly he asked, “Mamma where does this water go?” Tell me the story of this flowing water. He was pointing at the flowing water on the ground.(Story…not again pleaaaase… But did I really have any choice?? I had already resigned to my fate and continued…

Me: It goes down the drain.

Toddler: How?

Me: Through drainage pipes.

Toddler:Mamma, where drainage pipes go??

(Later in the evening I had to show him duct area where the drainage pipes were seen)

Me: They are connected to sewers beta.

Toddler: where are sewers?? I wanna see them..

Me: We cannot see sewers. They are under ground.

Toddler: Then what happens?

Me: Then the dirty used water is sent to water treatment plant.

Toddler: Then??

Me: Then it is sort of cleaned. Somethings are not good for our health. Such things are taken out of that water and such cleaned water is released in the river or ocean.

The bath was thankfully over.. otherwise he would have continued asking “then what happens Mamma?” What I would have told him further?? Come to think of it probably I would have continued with water cycle😂.What say??

Illustrations by: Amruta Kulkarni

He would pester us continually with “what will happen next??” It was so much so that sometime me and his Dadi used to call him crow. The pestilential bird who continues forever with his crowing and would not fly away how much so ever you try to shoo him away.

I am a working mother. His Dada and Dadi used to look after the kiddo. Sometimes they would tell him stories, sometimes they used play. Sometimes he used to watch TV along with them. One day I got back from office. The moment I stepped into the house my kiddo had a complaint about Dadi “Mamma, please tell Dadi. She wouldn’t let me put ink on stickers” “What??” “Dadi is not letting me put ink on the stickers.” Frankly speaking I didn’t understand even a word. But I was in a hurry as our dinner was waiting for us. I consoled him, “Don’t worry. I will speak to Dadi about it” He was pacified and ran away.

We had dinner, cleaned table and finished other cores. As I entered the bedroom, my Mother In Law (in current lingo MIL) followed me inside. She ensured that our kiddo was out of earshot playing with his father and asked me, “Where do you keep your sanitary napkins?” I was totally non-plussed by this opening question.

Me: I keep it in my cupboard Mother. Why what happened??

MIL: You shouldn’t leave such things in open in your cupboard.I was simply surprised. I was just not able to understand why my ever courteous MIL is asking me such questions all of a sudden. She had never bothered me with such questions Weever before in earlier 4 years.Watch this space to find out the secret of weird questions of my MIL and Dadi’s complaint by my kiddo. (TO BE CONTINUED)


Post your first blog

Hello There,

Welcome to my series of blog posts to help you get started with blogging quickly. Hope this is useful to you.

Note : This is a primer for blogging beginners. If you are an advance user you can skip this blog and register your email to get notified when I publish new posts.

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Any block can be converted to Classic block by clicking keyboard icon for a block as shown below :

We can switch to classic editor by selecting More tools and options >> Views >>Switch to classic Editor from option menu. Settings menu is displayed as three dots in top right corner

3.You can type content in editor, select Category for your blog post and also give tag in settings tab. Tag reflects key ideas in blog post and category helps us to organise our blog post in blog archives

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Go ahead and post your first blog post Happy Blogging

Feel free to ask me any questions



हात दे हातात गंss

(मैत्रिणी बरोबर हुंदडायची ईच्छा झाल्यावर…)
हात दे हातात, बागडू मौजेत,
चल जाऊ झोकात गं…..
डोंगर माथ्यात,मंद सूर्यास्तात,
हात दे हातात गं….
बांबूच्या बनात, माडांच्या सावलीत,
हात दे हातात गं…
स्वप्नांच्या जगात, जाऊ या ढगात,
हात दे हातात गं…
लोळूया मजेत, मखमली गवतात,
हात दे हातात गं…
कोकीळेला सादत, मेंढ्यांच्या कळपात,
चल जाऊ झोकात गं….
गोड हसू गालात, टाळ्यांच्या नादात,
चल जाऊ झोकात गं…..
गाईंच्या घंटात, मंजुळ निनादात,
चल जाऊ झोकात गं…..
हिरव्या रानात, द्राक्षांच्या मळ्यात,
हात दे हातात गं…
मोकाट सुसाट, वा-याशी स्पर्धत,
चल जाऊ झोकात गं…..
वीज भिने अंगात, आपल्याच दंगात,
चल जाऊ झोकात गं….
ढग दाटी नभात, चिंब भिजू पावसात,
हात दे हातात गं…
नाचू या तालात, गाऊ या रंगात,
हात दे हातात गं…
चांदणे नभात, चंद्र लपे झाडात,
हात दे हातात गं…
आनंद मनात, मावीना गगनात,
चल जाऊ झोकात गं……
तृप्तता साठत, हस-या घरट्यात,
वाट धरू परतीची गं….
हात दे हातात, बागडत मौजेत,
चल जाऊ झोकात गंssssssss

स्वाती कुलकर्णी.

9th February 1991