General Topic

Working with Japanese people – Part 2

11)   When going for a meeting, strictly adhere to timelines. You are expected to have taken a prior appointment. An agenda of meeting should be decided mutually beforehand. Required documents should have been shared. Concerned people should have been informed beforehand. There should be no room for surprises, chaos or mismanagement.

Statistical data if any should be kept handy. Wherever possible, create/share data in visual format (diagrams, graphs, pictures) which is easier to understand.

Mention the contents in emails or document in Bullet-points rather than writing an essay-like text.

12)   Always remember HouRenSou (Houkoku: Reporting, Renraku: Communicating, Soudan: Consulting)

13)   As mentioned in my earlier blog, the Japanese people do not like going ‘paperless’. You can see them carrying bunch of printouts for meeting. If you are hosting the meeting, you may be expected to carry important documents printed out in number enough for all participants.

14)   Anticipate the things in advance. If you see any problems/issues, bring them to notice of your Japanese counterpart. The Japanese don’t like surprises in work.

15)   The Japanese appreciate innovations. However, they may be slow in implementing changes.

16)   Check your understanding by asking questions. Many a times, the Japanese do not clearly state “Yes” or “No”. But, you may ask questions/ ask to repeat certain point and confirm that your understanding is correct. Politely apologize for asking repeatedly.

17)   Environment at work places or offices is formal. Informal talks / personal talks or chit-chatting / talking personal matters on phone is not done in offices.

For informal talks with colleagues/customers, there is a custom of after-work socialization (Nomikai飲み会-drinking party). This is not just for relaxing or entertainment, but important from business point of view as one can actually get to know the counterpart through such informal meetings. Even if you don’t drink, it is important that you participate in such meets.

18)   Directly coming to point of business right at the beginning of the informal meeting, or pin-pointing might sound stern. Initial warm-up talk like casual conversation should always be there. It helps in building relationship.

Don’t be surprised if you are asked personal questions (about your family, spouse, your age etc.) especially by older Japanese people.

19)   If you are invited for a lunch or dinner meeting or a get-together, be prepared to pay your contribution of bill, in most of the situations.

20)   Clean and neat appearance is important. Many Japanese people tend to judge a person by his/her appearance and dressing. Dressing formally is a part of Japanese Work Culture. Especially when meeting customers, wearing business suit is a must.

21)   Avoid sharp eye contact.

22)   If you speak English, speak slowly and without any specific accent. Slow and clear talk always enhances understanding of the Japanese counterpart.

Thus, this ‘Land of Rising Sun’ is definitely a likable place to work at, with warm people having a very high standard of living, highly developed country with all advanced technologies … everything one might want!

So, let’s go EAST 😃…


Curious kids or parents at test😲- Part 7 (Sun doesn’t rise, but earth rotates!)

I many times hear people say that this is not the right age to tell kids about this.. he is too small… I wonder is there really anything called as right age? Kids have amazing grasping powers and for that matter much better than adults. Kids are very receptive. They do understand. Why not try them?? I will quote one such incident.

My kid was in Junior KG. It was Saturday afternoon. It was lunch time. I was feeding my kid. He was feeling very lazy and he was trying to lie down while having his lunch. I was tired of telling him to sit straight.

I was racking my brain to engage him in some interesting conversation so that he would sit straight. I just asked him conversationally, “Just tell me what time of the day is it?? Morning, afternoon, evening??”

Kiddo: afternoon…

Me: Correct!! Now tell me what people do at this time??

Kiddo: I am having lunch. Then Nani is serving the food. Aunty is cleaning utensils (He answered looking around the room)

Me: So tell me during day do people sleep or they do work??

Kiddo: Work

Me: Should I tell you something funny?? At this very hour Dada, Dadi and Bua are sleeping.

Kiddo: (Now sitting straight and with a look of wonder in his eyes) how come??

Me: Do tell me where are Dada, Dadi and Bua these days?

Kiddo: U-S-A ( he answered stressing on each syllable)

Me: And all of them are sleeping right now because it’s night in USA at the moment.

Kiddo: (with disbelief) but we have a day here.

Me: Absolutely right!! We have day here in India and they have night in USA.

Kiddo: How is it possible Mamma?

Me: it’s quite simple actually. What is the shape of the earth??

(My kiddo already had encyclepedia with very nice illustrations. So Pat came the answer)

Kiddo: it looks round like a ball.

Me: Do you know the Sun remains constant and our earth rotates around itself. How you turn around yourself while playing Ring-a-ring-a roses. Earth also rotates around itself. 

Suddenly my Kiddo’s football became the earth. And the torch became the sun. I switched on the torch which was now Sun and the football earth started rotating. Then I showed him the portion of the earth which was facing the Sun. There it was a day. Then I showed him the portion of the earth which was away from the Sun and where light could not reach. There they had night. My kiddo was totally entrapped in this demonstration. Later on we purchased the globe. And my kiddo showed me India which was facing the Sun had day and USA which was exactly behind India had night. After this demonstration my Kiddo’s face was shining with excitement.

After few days I had been to my Kiddo’s school for parent teacher meeting. His teacher informed that she was teaching children about how sky appears during day and night. After she had finished teaching my kiddo had exclaimed, “Teacher, actually sun does not rise. But our earth rotates.” My kiddo had explained full day night cycle to his teacher in his Hinglish. The teacher had recorded the full explanation on her mobile phone and showed the recording during teachers meeting. The teachers were deliberating on whether to introduce the concept of solar system in Seniors KG. My kiddo’s teacher told them that if a Junior KG student can explain full day night cycle then why can’t we just introduce the kids with solar system. 

What more satisfaction a mother could get than her kid’s appreciation for such good reason. Mother’s efforts had shown fruits! 

In formal curriculum the kids learn about day night cycle in third or fourth standard. But I just tried to explain it to Junior KG kid with the resources easily available at home. He understood. If we parents take little efforts the kids can do wonders. 

Explaining day-night cycle was only a small portion!! Encyclepedia has played a major role in building and increasing a knowledge bank of my kiddo. In next blog I will take you through our favorite pastime – reading hour!!

General Topic

Working with Japanese people

In last few years, I got many opportunities to interact with the Japanese people, in Japan as well as in India. Working with the Japanese people never gave me “cultural shock”, but rather gave a feeling of “familiarity” as compared to westerners, may be because the Japanese and the Indians are all part of the same “Asian” or “Eastern” culture. Definitely, there are some things to be understood, experienced and kept in mind, which will make you more comfortable while working with the Japanese.

1)      Developing and nurturing good and long relationships is always like having a ‘good credit history’. It can open many doors for you. Building trust may take time. Once you build trust, you can expect and enjoy long-term healthy relationships with the Japanese. However, one should not breach the trust.

2)      Working as a group/team is expected rather than showing your individuality.

3)      Generally, the Japanese do not take decision alone-even the persons on managerial posts. Several people are involved in decision-making, hence such process might be slow.

4)      Learning/showing desire to learn from seniors is expected/appreciated.

5)      The Japanese people follow hierarchy at work. Seniors are highly respected by juniors.

Hierarchy is taken into consideration while allotting seats in meeting room. Person with higher ranks sit on the side of screen/projector/board, and those with lower ranks generally sit on side closer to door.

6)      There is an exchange of business cards in first meeting. Treating others’ business cards with respect is important. Cards should be handled with both hands and gently. Avoid writing on cards or throwing them casually in your bag etc. as this shows disrespect.

7)      You should show enthusiasm on your face towards work. Showing unwillingness/tiredness towards work or any kind of negative emotions on your face or even in your voice is not accepted.

8)      Many Japanese are introvert by nature. So, if you are new and need help, go and ask for it. Once asked, many a times they go out-of-the-way to help you.

9)      Be ready to do various kinds of tasks – not only whatever is instructed to you, but the related tasks too. General Indian tendency is doing only whatever is told. But this approach may not work in Japan. You need to take interest in overall work, apart from your own task.

A person with multi-dimensional skills is more appreciated. In business meetings, a Japanese counterpart may ask your opinion about something that is not related to your work. If he gets some insight or really good opinion from you, he will be happy and start looking to you as a useful person. Hence, being versatile and equipped with latest knowledge is an advantage.

10) At the same time, do not show-off your skills/knowledge unnecessarily. Be modest (don’t be overconfident) when expressing your opinion. Self-praise or self-promotion should be avoided…. Continue

Information Technology Software Testing

Software testing : Approaches and levels

Today I am going to talk about approaches and levels of software testing

Testing aims to examine multiple facets of quality.There are two main approaches to test the software ie. Black box and White box testing

1.Black box testing

Software product is evaluated in the context of business or user requirements using black box testing .

Requirement refers to feature of software with help of which user of system completes certain task. For Ex : Booking a movie ticket

In black box testing, software tester does not have a knowledge of code written(box to be tested is black for tester). He /she tests application based only on functionality expected

For example : Requirement to test is that in movie ticket booking application, user should be able to search movie by name in movie list. Suppose user is on home page where there is search box for movie name and search button ,this scenario can be tested by just entering movie name and clicking search button and verifying movie names displayed as required.

2.White box testing

In white box testing , software tester understands the code written inside program (white box)and tests program with respect to code to target defects inside.

For example : In movie ticket booking application, a code to display movie list should display 10 movies on each page for every category of movie. Count of movies to be displayed can be reviewed by examining code of respective program.

Black box testing is more prevalent in software testing.

Till now , we have seen approaches for software testing. Now let’s see what are levels of testing.

1.Unit testing

In unit testing, individual units of software code are tested to verify it’s functionality. Unit test scripts are generally developed by developers using unit testing frameworks like NUnit, JUnit etc. A simple unit test case calls or simulates unit under test , sends required inputs and asserts actual output against expected output. Unit testing framework has features like reporting, which helps in automating unit test cases effectively.With optimal unit testing , we can achieve optimum code coverage which prevents functional defects.

For example :

Unit test for search movie name

In movie ticket booking application, a class ” Search “is written for Search feature. This class which has some properties and methods. One of the method to search movies is SearchMovieByName

public String SearchMovieByName (String name)

This method is called by another dummy method for ex: CallerMethod which verifies return data

public void CallerMethod() {

Search obj= new Search();

String result = obj. SearchMovieByName (“ClassicMovie”);

String st=” ClassicMovie “;


Console.WriteLine(“Matching movie found”);


Console.WriteLine(“Matching movie not found”);


Search class can be unit tested for various input values for search box and expected movies details to be displayed depending on requirement.

2.Integration testing

Integration testing tests subsystem or system formed when two or more units of software product are coupled. Units so far developed and tested independently , may fail to function as expected when coupled together.

For example : When user makes payment for a selected movie show, program for ticket information is integrated with payment gateway processing program for which, we can test integration

3.System testing

System testing refers to testing application as a whole system. It examines functional requirements and it also verifies non functional aspects of system(For example : Performance, Stress, Accessibility etc). It is generally conducted by independent software testing team.

For example : In movie ticket booking application, end to end testing scenario of ticket selection to payment and ticket confirmation can be considered as system test scenario

4.User acceptance testing

In User acceptance testing (UAT) , the software is tested in the “real world” by the intended audience. UAT is final last phase of the software testing process, before the software is released to real word. In UAT, group of business or end users review system to verify functionality and find issues if any.In case if software follows any contract or regulation guidelines, relevant test scenarios are included in UAT.

Alpha testing and beta testing are also types of UATs. Alpha testing of ready to use software is conducted by in house testers or developers , before it is released to business users. Beta testing takes place at customers’ sites, where a group of customers or end users use the system and report observations and issues , before the system is released to live environment.

In next post we will have at look types of software testing . Keep reading. Keep testing.


Curious kids or parents at test😲-Part 6 (Rendezvous with the Thalaiva)

In last blog we read about how my kiddo witnessed baby delivery scene in the “Robot” movie accidentally and how the little one asked questions on delivery.

My little question bank was of course not done with what he had witnessed on the TV. Pat came the next question.

Kiddo: Mamma, do women die while giving birth to the baby??

Me (emphatically): Of course not.

Kiddo: Then why did she say – she is dying??

Me: Women do not die while delivering babies. In some very very rare case due to some complications a woman may die.

Kiddo: But that woman on the TV died…

Me: Not at all dear. On the contrary that woman was saved. 

Kiddo: Then why did she say she is dying??

Me: That doctor thought that if the complications were not solved immediately the woman’s life was in danger. But that woman was saved. Plus, this is movie. So people don’t really die in movie. They just act like that.

Kiddo: Act means??

Me: Nattak…(Drama)! They just pretend to die.

Kiddo: But why did she say she is dying even in drama??

It was clear that he was very much shaken by that scene and he was not able to take this question out of his head whatever I answered. So I tried to give him some real life examples.

Me: Look I gave you birth and I am still there. Right??

Kiddo: Yes, but she said..

I cut him short and said

Me: Look at Dadi. She gave birth to Bua and Daddy. Both were normal deliveries. She is still there and she adores you. Doesn’t she?

Kiddo: Yes, but…

Me: Look at Nani.. she gave birth to Mamma and Mausi. She is still alive and gets lots of toys for you.

I had to give him many such examples of Buas, Mausis, Mamis, grannies… Finally the truth dawned on him and he got convinced. The Thalaiva Rajanikant has inspired many people in many ways but he has inspired my kiddo to ask endless questions!!

You may also feel why am I entertaining my kid so much?? Is it really necessary to discuss these things in this much detail?? I feel that these days the kids have a lot of exposure compared to what we had in our time. In the given instance itself my kid had accidentally stumbled across this delivery scene and was shaken. It was very much necessary to remove his anxiety. With this kind of exposure I think these kinds of conversations are unavoidable.

Secondly these days they have lot of avenues of getting information like Internet, encyclepedia, books. If we do not satisfy their curiosity then there are high chances that they will turn to these other media. Imagine what sort of material will be available to them!! Instead it’s better we give them sensored information. Let them hear what you want them to hear.

Lastly let them build confidence that they get right answers to all sort of questions from their parents. Let them turn to you instead of their friends or seniors. Curiosity is not a sin. Then why kill it? Try them with correct information and you will be surprised by their amazing capacity. 

Friends, let’s meet again next week with story about amazing grasping power of kids. Sometimes when we say he is just a kid and avoid anwer his questions probably we are underestimating them. Stay tuned!!

You can read all the blogs by the author on or

General Topic


In language career Interpretation (通訳) is always more challenging than translation (翻訳). Interpretation is verbal and translation is in writing. In my earlier blog, I explained about translation techniques, challenges etc. Now let’s understand what Interpretation mean and qualities required?

Interpretation is more challenging than translation because in case of translation you have source language document in writing and you can refer dictionary, have time to think on the document etc.; whereas in case of interpretation it is face to face on table. There is no time to refer dictionary and think on much. Interpretation is an act of explaining to a person who doesn’t understand source language.

Following qualities are required for interpretation:

1)      Be a good listener

Simultaneous interpretation is one type of interpretation. It means interpret what is said in real time while the speaker is still speaking. Interpreter needs to listen with full concentration. I have experienced English à Japanese simultaneous interpretation many times in my previous organization. It’s quite stressful type of interpretation. It is generally preferred in large scale meetings and important thing is pause in conversation is not allowed. Though it is stressful I have gained amazing experiences in this type.

Consecutive interpretation is another type which is comparatively easier.

2)      Vast vocabulary of source language and target language as well as domain knowledge;

Generally knowing meaning of words in other language does not suffice. One should be aware of the mechanism, function etc.; it really helps while interpreting in other language.

Due to environmental norms getting stringent product A of my previous organization was in verge of getting change to product B. We interpreters had knowledge of product A as it was manufactured for few years, but while changing to product B, that knowledge was not with us. I remember one incident, once R&D engineers from Japan had visited us for training our Engineers on product B. But the technology was new for all of us, we interpreters also had limited vocabulary (frankly speaking Japanese to English dictionary words we had by hearted which did not fully work). That was a hurdle in interpretation and I was not able to convey exact mechanism of product explained by Japanese to Indian Engineers. Seniors were aware about this and end result, management decided to send 1 interpreter along with Engineers to Japan for getting trained on product B. I traveled to Japan for 2 weeks, had hard training and after returning had to percolate information gained to other interpreters on new product.

3)      Cope with stress and self-control;

Example of stress and self-control, in my previous organization once a meeting started at 4:45pm (being manufacturing company our office hours were 8:00am to 5:00pm fix). As I was heading interpreter department I was immediately called in meeting room. I was aware about the seriousness of the topic for which meeting was called. Quickly I called my mom and told her “आई आज 7:30च्या शीफ्टच्या बसनी येते, कारण आता एक मिटींग सुरू होती आहे L”. The supposedly short meeting lasted till 10:15pm. As an Interpreter you have to be continuously on toes in such type of meetings, have patience, and be attentive… no snacks in between, no natural call break … havoc

After meeting my Director said, “so Amruta, looking tired…”

I just asked him “सर मी घरी फोन करून आई -बाबांशी मराठीत बोलू का?”. He laughed loud and permitted me…. Husssh. But end result, I got to travel to Sri Lanka for 10 days along with technical team (Japanese and Indian). In Sri Lanka we had hired Sri Lankan language (Sinhala) interpreter. He was interpreting Sinhala  à English and I was interpreting English à Japanese and vice versa. Though the meetings were lasting for hours for single topic, it was good learning experience for me too. The same experience I gained in Italy (Italian à English à Japanese).

In my previous organization I have experienced such meeting many times.

4)      Cultural awareness

<<I will give example of this in blog “My Experiences”>>

An Interpreter bridges the gap between two people speaking different language. The role of Interpreter is to convey information accurately from one language to another. While doing so, he/she should be as a neutral party, not add his/her personal or emotional feelings, not omit key words or summarize the message, should be aware of professional and ethical responsibilities. The role of the interpreter is to not only convey the words between the participants in the communication process, but also need to make sure that the goal of the topic is clear and that all-important aspects are properly conveyed and understood. Hence, Interpreters play a very vital role. Due to globalization, interpreters and translators are in high demand now 😃.

General Topic


पूर्वाश्रमीची ती लीना बोंटडकरांची झाली ती सीमा(काकू);

आम्हाला शिकवले तिने कसा करावा प्रत्येक कठीण प्रसंगाचा खीमा,

तीच्या आगमनाने पळून गेला सुहासकाकाच्या कुंडलीतला मंगळ;

सुहासकाका आणि ती असले की असते आम्हा मुलांची खायची चंगळ,

तिच्या पोटि जन्माला आलं जेंव्हा प्रणव रूपी एक गोंडस बाळ;

तेंव्हापासून सुरू झाला तीच्या भरभराटीचा सुवर्ण काळ,

लहानपणापासूनच तीने दिले प्रणवला शिस्तीचे धडे;

चान्स मिळाला तर नक्की खाऊन बघा तीच्या हातचे गरमागरम पत्रवडे,

तीला वाटतं सर्वच र्मुलींनी व्हावं प्रणव वर फिदा;

म्हणून केला चीज आणि बटरला त्याच्या आहारातून अलवीदा,

मला म्हणते खूप यश मिळव आयुष्यात माझ्या बाळा;

सल्ला असतो तीचा सदैव दारू आणि सिगरेटचा मोह टाळा, 

प्रणवला ती लाडीगोडीने म्हणते अप्पू;

लहानपणापासून तीला जवळचे वाटतात मुन्ना आणि पप्पू,

आहे तिचा गोंदवलेकर महाराजांवर खूपच विश्वास;

तळमळतो तीचा जीव जर प्रणवने खाल्ला नसेल अन्नाचा एक घास, 

अश्विनीला सासुबाईंच्या रूपात मिळाली अजून एक आई;

सीमाकाकू नक्कीच सांगेल प्रणवला नको करूस ४/५ नातवंडांची घाई,

अश्विनीच्या रूपात तीला मिळाली एक सदगुणी सून;

क्षणोक्षणी प्रणवच्या पाठीशी उभी रहील असो सन अथवा मून,

तीचा प्रयत्न असतो नात्यातले बंध रहावेत नेहमीच घट्ट;

लवकरच सुरू करेल ती प्रणव आणि अश्विनीकडे नातवंडांचा हट्ट!!!


माझ्या जीवनातील आनंद यात्री: माझ्या सासूबाई (रागावणं माझ्या स्वभावातच नाही)

मी पेशाने वकील. अनेक कौटुंबिक प्रकरणे मी निकालात काढलेली होती. बऱ्याच प्रकरणांमध्ये सुनेला सासूचा काहीना काहीतरी त्रास हा असायचाच. त्यामुळे एकूणच सासू ही सुनेची शत्रूच असते, हा संस्कार माझ्या मनावर झालेला होता.

माझं लग्न झाले. अनेकदा सासूशी कसे वागायचे याचे सल्ले दिल्यामुळे मला भिती नव्हती. आणि माझ्या आयुष्यात सासू नामक प्रकरण सुरू झाले. माझ्या वैचारिक विश्वातील शत्रुत न बसणारी अतिशय भाबडी, सरळ, गरीब वागणारी, जिला साधंसुधं सुद्धा रागं भरता येत नाही अशी बाई मला सासू म्हणून लाभली.

आमच्याकडे एक कामाला रूक्मिणी नावाची बाई लावली होती. ती काम नीट करत नसे. मी कोर्टाच्या कामानिमित्त दिवसभर बाहेर असायचे. घरी अशी सासू. बायका पण बरोबर जोखतात मालकिणींना. मी घरी आले की पसारा तसाच असायचा. ती बाई काम करायचा आव आणायची. आज काय तिने अभंगच म्हणून दाखवला. उद्या काय तिला दुसरे अर्जंट काम आहे. अशा एक ना दोन अडचणी ठरलेल्या. शेवटी मी माझ्या सासूबाईंना सांगितले. तिला जरा नीट काम करायला सांगा. नाहीतर तिला आपण काढून टाकू. रोज मी संध्याकाळी घरी आले की त्यांना विचारायचे, ‘तिला तुम्ही ओरडलात का? ‘ त्या रोज तिला गोड शब्दांत काम करायला सांगायच्या, पण ओरडू काही शकायच्या नाहीत. मला कळेना सासूला कसे सांगावे, म्हणजे त्या, त्या बाईला ओरडतील. शेवटी एक दिवस मीच त्यांना घरातून ऑफीसला जाताना धमकावले की, ‘आज जर तुम्ही तिला कामावरून काढून टाकायची धमकी दिली नाहीत, किंवा सरळ कामावरून काढून टाकले नाहीत, तर आज तुमचे व माझे जबरदस्त भांडण होईल.’ मला माहित होते माझ्याशी भांडण करायचे सासूबाईंना जास्त टेन्शन येणार त्यामुळे आज त्या बाईला नक्कीच ओरडतील किंवा कामावरून काढून टाकतील.

संध्याकाळी मी नेहमी प्रमाणे घरी आले. आल्या आल्या सासूबाईंना विचारले, तुम्ही रूक्मिणीला बोललात की नाही?. त्या म्हणाल्या “हो, हो, बोलले तर, चांगले खडसावले”. मी त्यांना विचारले तुम्ही काय बोललात. तर त्या मला म्हणाल्या, मी तिला सांगितले, “ते तुझ्या कामावर प्रसन्न नाहीयेत”


माझ्या जीवनातील आनंदयात्री

माझ्या आयुष्यात आलेल्या, अनेक व्यक्ती, माझ्यासाठी, आनंदयात्री, आनंददायी ठरलेल्या आहेत. त्या व्यक्तींची माझ्या आयुष्यातील आठवण, ही कदाचित आनंदाची असेल, दुःखाची असेल, पण प्रत्येक आठवण, ही मला आनंद देणारीच आहे. अशा माझ्या आयुष्यात आलेले जे अनेक आनंदयात्री आहेत, त्या, त्या व्यक्तींशी घडलेल्या प्रसंगांचा मला तुमच्याशी थोडा, थोडा परिचय करून देणे आवडेल.

यात तुम्हाला माझी सासू, नणंद, जाऊ, कामवाल्या, माझे अशील, मैत्रिणी, मित्र, रस्त्यातील वाटसरु असे अनेक लोक भेटतील. ज्यांमुळे मला कायम कसा आनंदच मिळाला हे मी तुम्हाला सांगणार आहे.

General Topic


For last few years, I am working as a Japanese translator. Frankly speaking, word to word translation is an imperfect concept, because a given word in a given language often carries more than one meaning; and because a similar given meaning may often be represented in a given language by more than one word. With Globalization, demand of business documentation is increasing, due to which generally documents are maintained in multiple languages such as English language and national language. Hence translation plays a vital role.

The literal meaning of Translation means, communication from the source language text converting with effective meaning into target language text. It is the process of translating words or text from one language into another language.

Though translation is an art, it is not easy at all. For a translation to be true or to convey appropriate meaning the translator must know both languages. And knowledge related to the documents domain is always an additional advantage. The translator’s role is as a bridge for “carrying across” values between cultures and by no means is an inactive and mechanical one. The features of competent translators are as follows;

1)    A very good knowledge of the source language, written and spoken.

2)    An excellent command on the language into which he / she is expected to translate (target language)

3)    Familiarity with the subject matter of the text being translated.

4)    Sense of when to “translate literally” and when to “paraphrase”, so as to assure true translation between the source and target language.

5)    A competent translator must not only be bilingual but also bicultural.

Challenges faced while translating Japanese to English or vice versa;

The script of Asian languages such as Japanese, Chinese etc. is different from the Western languages. Japanese is written in combination of three scripts: Hiragana, Katakana and Kanji (originated from Chinese characters). The Japanese Ministry of Education designated 1,945 characters as “Jooyou Kanji” (常用漢字), which is the most frequently, used characters. Similar phonetic words indicate different meaning with different kanji’s. While translating from source language to target language which is Japanese or vice versa, translator should know the appropriate usage and meaning of kanji.

Though Japanese are much a head in technology, they do not prefer going ‘paperless’J. You can see them carrying bunch of printouts for meeting. These printouts are often in two languages: Japanese (for Japanese counterpart) as well as English (for non-Japanese counterpart). Hence there is need to match meaning in whichever language.

There is a concept called as “back translation or retranslate”. A “back-translation” is a translation of a translated text back into the language of the original text, made without reference to the original text. Comparison of a back-translation with the original text is sometimes used to validate the accuracy of the translation. Generally in the context of machine translation, a back-translation is also called a “round-trip translation.”

Normally a Japanese person even though he can speak and understand English prefers all documents to be in Japanese. Hence there is great demand for Japanese bilingual translators 😄……